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Peace talks a way to find ‘political formula’ to end war: Khalilzad

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(Last Updated On: September 13, 2020)

US Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation Zalmay Khalilzad said Sunday the  start of the intra-Afghan talks is a new beginning for the Afghan people and a way to “find a political formula for ending the war that could lead to a comprehensive and permanent ceasefire.”

In an interview with Ariana News on the sideline of the long-waited intra-Afghan talks in Doha, Khalilzad said the Afghan and Taliban delegations need to agree on a reduction in violence.

This would then need to lead to a comprehensive and permanent ceasefire enabling the two sides to pursue talks in a peaceful environment, he said.

 “We demand violence be reduced and a permanent and comprehensive ceasefire to be reached as soon as possible,” Khalilzad said.

Referring to US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo’s statement that America has no intention of forcing a political system on other countries, Khalilzad stated that US support for Afghanistan depends on a system in which Afghans can practice democracy.

“If people do not support the future system, if it was not democratic, the rights of the people would not be respected, women would be deprived of their rights, and then we would make our own decision,” he said. 

Regarding the troops drawdown in Afghanistan, the US envoy said that US forces would be reduced to 4,500 until the end of November; “Commander of US Forces said that with these soldiers they can accomplish their responsibilities and until the end of November we will monitor the situation.” 

Many critics have claimed that the urgency involved in withdrawing troops is a campaign move by US President Donald Trump ahead of the November elections. They state this is in keeping with his 2016 election promise of bringing home all American troops. 

Khalilzad meanwhile has been the driving force behind the peace talks process and has worked for two years to get both parties to the talks tables. 

In a briefing ahead of the historic start to the talks on Saturday, he said peace talks was a test for both sides – for the Taliban and for the Afghan government and raised the question of whether the two sides could “reach an agreement despite differences in terms of their visions for the future of Afghanistan?”

He pointed out that the peace talks process had reached an important juncture but that there are difficulties and significant challenges in the way of reaching an agreement.

However, the US was prepared to assist if needed, he said, adding that this phase is a new stage in the diplomacy path to peace. 

Khalilzad stated that from now on the process is Afghan-owned and Afghan-led and that there will be no foreign mediators nor facilitators when the sides hold their talks. 

He also said that in light of upcoming elections in the US, he was hoping that progress would have been made regarding negotiations by that time.

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Khalilzad says things could have been very different had Ghani stayed

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(Last Updated On: September 27, 2021)

US special envoy for Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad said this weekend that former president Ashraf Ghani’s decision to leave Afghanistan without warning took everyone, including Washington, by surprise.

In an exclusive interview with Ariana News, Khalilzad said that the night before his departure, the US Secretary of State Antony Blinken had spoken to Ghani on the phone.

He said Ghani had not given any signal as to his intentions.

“Everyone including the US were shocked when this happened,” he said.

However, he implied that had Ghani stepped down as president in the lead up to the IEA’s takeover, things could have been very different.

One of the key reasons however for the breakdown of peace talks between Ghani’s government and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA) was that the former president wanted the IEA to be included in the existing government as opposed to a new government being formed, as per the agreement with the United States.

“There were different reasons for the lack of major progress in the negotiations;

“The main one was that there was a long, huge, big gap between the two sides around a political settlement and agreement,” Khalilzad said.

According to him, efforts were made to move the process forward and some progress was made in certain areas.

“But I think the main issue was that the US and the Taliban had reached an agreement over the formation of a new Islamic government.

“The government of Afghanistan wanted the Taliban to be integrated into the former government instead of forming a new government,” he said.

According to him, this would have resembled the government of national unity after the 2014 elections which saw former president Ashraf Ghani and former CEO Abdullah Abdullah sharing power.

Khalilzad said a trilateral agreement was suggested between Ghani, Abdullah and the IEA.

However, Ghani’s opinion was that the country’s Constitution did not allow for such a move.

“For a long time, they (government) assumed if they insisted on this, the Taliban would eventually agree to it.

“The Taliban was in favor of the formation of a new Islamic government. Some Taliban wanted the establishment of the 1990s Emirate while some others were in favor of a new (inclusive) government,” he said

Khalilzad also said that after coming into power, US President Joe Biden “thought that he could reject the deal which was signed during (former president Donald) Trump’s tenure or bring changes to it and this caused the negotiations to be postponed”.

However, once Biden announced his decision to stick to the deal made during Trump’s tenure, and withdraw all troops, “changes came in the balance on the battlefield”.

Touching on the issue of terrorism, Khalilzad said the overall picture has changed and that al-Qaeda’s footprint in the country had been reduced significantly.

He said terrorists were no longer confined to one base but were today spread out around the world.

“They can be found in small and large groups in different countries around the world.

“Therefore, Afghanistan is not what it used to be in terms of the threat of terrorism,” he said adding that currently, only a small number of al-Qaeda members are present in the country.

He said the number did not warrant the presence of US troops in Afghanistan.

Khalilzad also stated that after the deal had been signed in February last year between the US and the Taliban, Washington would not have withdrawn had Americans been targeted.

“The US troops would not have pulled out from Afghanistan if an American had been killed by the Taliban after the agreement,” he said.

A critical question around the collapse of the former government was however the sudden change of heart by the Afghan military, he said adding that in the days leading up to the fall of Ghani’s government, “unexpected things happened, where they (soldiers) did not fight”.

Khalilzad explained that in the hours before the takeover of Kabul by IEA forces, a meeting was underway in Doha between the US, the IEA and the republic.

He said an agreement was reached that the IEA would not attack Kabul and would instead give the then Afghan government two weeks, from August 15, to travel to Doha, meet with all parties concerned, and agree to the formation of a new government.

He said the delegation from the republic would have included former president Hamid Karzai and Abdullah.

“And an agreement would have been made on an inclusive government; but the (former) government would have remained in place in those two weeks.”

Khalilzad stated that the delegation would have been authorized to sign off on an agreement with the IEA.

However, this meeting never took place, nor was any deal signed. Instead, Afghanistan’s then-president, Ghani, fled the country and security forces disintegrated within hours.

Khalilzad confirmed a security and government vacuum immediately emerged which led to the decision that the IEA forces would move into Kabul to secure the capital but stated that Ghani’s sudden, unannounced, departure took everyone, including Washington, by surprise.

“A night earlier the (US) Secretary of State had spoken to the president of Afghanistan; the president of Afghanistan did not signal any intention to leave.

“Everyone including the US were shocked when this happened,” he said adding that Ghani might have thought his life was in danger.

Had Ghani however resigned in order to bring peace to Afghanistan, and allowed the establishment of a new government, “it could have been a historic step”.

“The name of the president could have been written in gold in the history of Afghanistan,” he said, adding that only Ghani can answer the question on why he chose to do it this way.

On whether the US will recognize the IEA government, Khalilzad said this all depends on the IEA – if they stick to the commitments they made.

“The world is waiting to see if the Taliban (IEA) will fulfill the commitments they have made, and if they do, the normal relationship between the world and the Taliban (IEA) will be established,” Khalilzad said.

However, Khalilzad said that Afghanistan is in need of urgent humanitarian aid and has pledged an additional $64 million. He said that not only was the war an issue but unemployment, drought, COVID and a low level of economic activity were also contributing factors to the current situation.

He said discussions are currently underway in various countries and within the United Nations on getting Afghanistan’s assets released.

Khalilzad pointed out that the war in Afghanistan has ended and that fears of a civil war were unfounded. This was “a positive point”, he said.

Drawing a parallel to the civil war that broke out following the withdrawal of Soviet Union troops in 1989, he said “the government at the time could not form an inclusive government, igniting civil war.

“But I hope the bad experience will not be repeated and an inclusive government will be set up,” he said adding that “if they (IEA) go through with their promises, it will be a positive era for the future of Afghanistan.”

CLICK HERE to watch the full interview with English subtitles.

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Donor countries pledge $1 billion to support emergency aid for Afghanistan

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(Last Updated On: September 13, 2021)

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has announced that donors have pledged over $1 billion towards aid for Afghanistan – exceeding the hoped for amount of $606 million. 

Guterres’ announcement comes after Monday’s High-Level Ministerial Meeting on the Humanitarian Situation in Afghanistan. 

“This conference has fully met my expectations in relation to the solidarity with the people in Afghanistan,” Guterres said late Monday. 

Afghanistan stands on the brink of a growing humanitarian and economic crisis.

Earlier Monday Guterres, who hosted the meeting, said “the people of Afghanistan need a lifeline” during “their most perilous hour.”

Guterres also maintained that the country’s new rulers had pledged their cooperation “to ensure assistance is delivered to the people of Afghanistan.”

One in two Afghans do not know where their next meal is coming from, the UN chief explained, adding that “many people could run out of food by the end of the month, just as winter approaches”.

Guterres did not specify how much of the $1 billion in pledged funding would be distributed towards the UN emergency budget for the coming months, or what would be potentially provided later. 

However, a survey by the World Food Programme (WFP) found 93% of Afghans surveyed lacked sufficient food, many because they could not get access to cash to pay for items.

Even before the takeover by the Islamic Emirate, food circumstances in Afghanistan were dire. 

Mary-Ellen McGroarty, the WFP Country Director for Afghanistan said: “It’s critical for the humanitarian effort that in the greatest time of need, that the international community stands alongside the women and children and men of Afghanistan, whose lives have been upended through no fault of their own,” she said.

 

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US pledges additional $64 million in aid for Afghanistan

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(Last Updated On: September 13, 2021)

U.S. Special Representative for Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad said on Monday night the United States has committed a further $64 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan.

In a tweet late Monday, Khalilzad said: “The United States remains firmly committed to continue our robust humanitarian assistance for the people of Afghanistan.

“We are proud to announce an additional $64 million in humanitarian assistance,” he said.

According to a statement issued by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the funding is from both USAID and the U.S. State Department and the money will flow through independent organizations, such as UN agencies and NGOs.

This money will “provide life-saving support directly to Afghans facing the compounding effects of insecurity, conflict, recurring natural disasters, and the COVID-19 pandemic,” read the statement.

The organization said the additional funding will provide vulnerable Afghans with critically needed food, health care, nutrition, medical supplies, protection, hygiene supplies, and other urgently needed relief.

In addition, USAID stated it has activated a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) – based outside of Afghanistan – to lead the U.S. Government’s humanitarian response.

“This team, which is based outside of Afghanistan, is working with partners to provide aid and adapt programs in response to the new environment,” the statement read.

The United States is the single largest humanitarian donor in Afghanistan, providing nearly $330 million this year alone.

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